How to fix bike gears that won’t shift

Few things are more frustrating for a cyclist than trying to shift gears on their bike and encountering stubborn resistance or outright failure. When your bike gears won’t shift properly, it can make your ride uncomfortable, inefficient, and even unsafe.

However, the good news is that many gear-shifting issues can be resolved with some basic knowledge and a few simple tools.

In this article, we’ll explain the typical causes of bike gear resistance and provide you with step-by-step directions on how to fix bike gears that won’t shift. Regardless of your level of cycling expertise knowing how your bike’s gears operate and how to fix them is an important skill that will improve your riding.

Understanding How Bike Gears Work

How Bike Gears Work
How Bike Gears Work

Before diving into troubleshooting and fixing gear-shifting problems, it’s essential to have a basic understanding of how bike gears operate. Bike gears are a system of components that allow you to vary the resistance you encounter when pedaling making it easier to go up hills or faster on flat terrain. This system comprises several key parts:

  • Front Derailleur: This is the mechanism that moves the chain between the chainrings attached to the pedal cranks. It’s responsible for changing the gear ratios at the front of your bike.
  • Rear Derailleur: The rear derailleur is responsible for moving the chain between the cogs on the rear wheel. It controls the gear ratios at the back of your bike.
  • Shifters: These are the levers or buttons on your handlebars that you use to control the derailleurs. They connect to the derailleurs via cables.
  • Cables and Housing: Cables connect the shifters to the derailleurs, allowing you to move them and change gears. The housing protects the cables and helps maintain their smooth movement.
  • Chainrings and Cogs: The chainrings are the gears attached to your pedal cranks while the cogs are the gears on your rear wheel. The size of these components determines the gear ratio affecting the effort required to pedal.

Understanding these components and their interactions is crucial for troubleshooting and fixing gear-shifting issues effectively.

Common Gear-Shifting Problems and Solutions

Gear-Shifting Problems and Solutions
Gear-Shifting Problems and Solutions

Now that you have a grasp of how bike gears work let’s delve into some common gear-shifting problems and their solutions.

Problem 1: The Chain Won’t Move or Jumps Between Gears

Solution: Check Cable Tension

One of the most frequent issues with bike gears is improper cable tension. If your chain won’t move or jumps between gears it may be due to either too much or too little tension in the cables. Here’s how to address this problem.

  • Begin by shifting your bike to the smallest chainring at the front and the smallest cog at the rear.
  • Look for the barrel adjuster on your rear derailleur or shifter. Turn it clockwise to increase cable tension if your chain is not moving to smaller cogs or counterclockwise to decrease tension if it’s not moving to larger cogs.
  • Shift through all the gears while pedaling to ensure smooth transitions. If the chain still won’t move or jump consider checking the cable tension at the front derailleur as well.
  • Repeat the process for the front derailleur, adjusting the barrel adjuster as needed.

Problem 2: Chain Rubs Against the Front Derailleur

Solution: Align the Front Derailleur

If you notice your chain rubbing against the front derailleur when you shift gears it’s a sign that the derailleur is misaligned. Follow these steps to fix it.

  • Shift to the smallest chainring at the front and the smallest cog at the rear.
  • Inspect the clearance between the chain and the front derailleur. There should be a small gap, ideally 1-2 mm.
  • Loosen the derailleur clamp bolt just enough to allow you to adjust the derailleur’s position.
  • Align the derailleur so that it’s parallel to the chainrings ensuring the proper clearance. Then tighten the clamp bolt securely.
  • Shift through all the gears to verify that the chain no longer rubs against the derailleur.

Problem 3: Gears Won’t Shift Smoothly or Are Noisy

Solution: Lubricate and Clean Components

If your gears won’t shift smoothly or are noisy dirt and lack of lubrication could be the culprits. Here’s how to address this issue.

  • Start by cleaning your chain chainrings and cogs. Use a chain cleaning tool or a rag and a brush to remove dirt and old lubricant.
  • Apply a good-quality chain lubricant to your chain ensuring each link is adequately coated. Allow the lubricant to penetrate for a few minutes then wipe off any excess.
  • Inspect the shift cables and housing for signs of wear or damage. Replace them if necessary.
  • Check the jockey wheels on your rear derailleur for dirt and debris. Clean them using a small brush or a toothbrush.
  • Lubricate the pivot points on both derailleurs to ensure they move smoothly.
  • Shift through all the gears while pedaling to distribute the lubricant and check if the shifting has improved.

Problem 4: Chain Slips Under Load

Solution: Replace the Worn Chain or Cogs

If your chain slips under load, especially when pedaling hard or climbing hills it could be a sign of worn-out chainrings or cogs. Here’s what to do.

  • Measure your chain for wear using a chain wear indicator tool. If it shows significant wear it’s time to replace the chain.
  • Check the teeth on your chainrings and cogs for signs of wear such as shark-fin-like shapes or hooking. If they are worn consider replacing them.
  • If you replace the chain it’s often advisable to replace the cassette (rear cogs) as well to ensure smooth shifting and prevent premature chain wear.
  • Install the new chain or cassette making sure to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for proper installation.

Problem 5: Inconsistent Shifting

Solution: Check for Bent Derailleur Hangers

Inconsistent shifting where gears seem to work fine one moment and not the next can often be traced back to a bent derailleur hanger. Here’s how to address this issue.

  • Shift to the smallest chainring at the front and the smallest cog at the rear.
  • Look closely at the alignment of the rear derailleur hanger. It should be parallel to the wheel and frame.
  • If you suspect the hanger is bent you can use a derailleur hanger alignment tool to straighten it. This tool allows you to carefully adjust the hanger’s position until it’s in proper alignment.
  • After aligning the hanger recheck your gear shifting for consistency.

Tools You’ll Need for Gear Shifting Repairs

To effectively troubleshoot and fix gear-shifting problems you’ll need some basic tools. Here’s a list of essential tools for working on your bike’s gears.

Tools You'll Need for Gear Shifting Repairs

  • Hex Wrench Set: A set of hex wrenches in various sizes will help you adjust and secure components like derailleurs and shifters.
  • Cable Cutters: Cable cutters are essential for trimming and maintaining your shift cables.
  • Chain Wear Indicator Tool: This tool helps you determine if your chain is worn and needs replacing.
  • Chain Lubricant: High-quality chain lubricant keeps your chain and drivetrain running smoothly.
  • Chain Cleaning Tool: A chain cleaning tool simplifies the process of cleaning your chain.
  • Derailleur Hanger Alignment Tool: If you suspect a bent derailleur hanger, this tool is indispensable for straightening it.
  • Rag and Cleaning Brush: These items are useful for cleaning your bike’s components.
  • Replacement Cables and Housing: Having spare shift cables and housing on hand is helpful for quick replacements.
  • Screwdrivers: Standard and Phillips-head screwdrivers may be needed for adjustments on some components.
  • Pliers: Pliers can be useful for tasks like adjusting cable tension.
  • Chain Tool: A chain tool is necessary if you need to remove and replace a damaged chain.

Having these tools readily available will make it much easier to diagnose and fix gear-shifting problems on your bike.

Tips for Preventing Gear-Shifting Problems

Prevention is often the best strategy when it comes to bike maintenance. By taking proper care of your bike’s gears and drivetrain you can reduce the likelihood of encountering shifting issues in the first place. Here are some tips to keep your gears in excellent working condition.

  • Regular Cleaning and Lubrication: Clean your chain chainrings and cogs regularly and keep them well-lubricated. This helps prevent the buildup of dirt and grime that can hinder shifting performance.
  • Inspect and Replace Cables: Shift cables and housing can wear out over time. Inspect them for signs of fraying rust or damage and replace them as needed.
  • Maintain Proper Chain Tension: Ensure your chain is at the correct tension by following your bike’s manufacturer guidelines. Loose or overly tight chains can affect shifting.
  • Avoid Cross-Chaining: Try to avoid using the smallest chainring at the front with the smallest cog at the rear or the largest chainring at the front with the largest cog at the rear. Cross-chaining can cause increased wear and less efficient shifting.
  • Regularly Check for Bent Components: Periodically inspect your derailleur hangers, derailleur cages, and chainrings for any signs of bending or damage.
  • Keep an Eye on Chain Wear: Use a chain wear indicator tool to monitor the condition of your chain. Replacing a worn chain can prevent damage to your chainrings and cogs.
  • Learn Proper Shifting Technique: Practice smooth and deliberate shifting to reduce the stress on your drivetrain. Avoid shifting under heavy loads or when pedaling with excessive force.
  • Store Your Bike Properly: If you’re not using your bike for an extended period, store it indoors in a dry place to prevent rust and corrosion.

By following these preventive measures you can extend the life of your bike’s gears and enjoy smoother trouble-free shifting on your rides.

When to Seek Professional Help

While many gear-shifting problems can be resolved with the guidance provided in this guide there are situations where it’s best to seek the expertise of a professional bike mechanic. Here are some instances when professional help is advisable.

  • Complex Issues: If you’ve tried the troubleshooting steps outlined here and are still experiencing gear-shifting problems it may be a sign of a more complicated issue that requires expert diagnosis.
  • Component Damage: If you suspect that major components like derailleurs, shifters, or the derailleur hanger are damaged or bent beyond what you can repair it’s best to have a professional assess and replace them.
  • In-Depth Maintenance: Some tasks, like bleeding hydraulic disc brakes or overhauling bottom brackets, require specialized tools and knowledge that may be beyond the scope of a typical cyclist. A professional can perform these tasks safely and effectively.
  • Safety Concerns: If your gear-shifting issues pose a safety risk such as sudden and unexpected shifts while riding it’s crucial to address them promptly by consulting a professional.
  • Warranty Considerations: If your bike is under warranty attempting extensive repairs or modifications on your own could void the warranty. Consult your bike’s manufacturer or a certified dealer for warranty-related repairs.

Remember that professional bike mechanics have the experience and tools needed to diagnose and fix complex issues accurately. Seeking their assistance can ensure the long-term reliability and safety of your bike.


Properly functioning gears are essential for an enjoyable and efficient cycling experience. When your bike gears won’t shift as they should it can be frustrating but with the knowledge and tools provided in this guide you can diagnose and resolve many common gear-shifting problems on your own.

 By understanding how your bike’s gears work practicing preventive maintenance and knowing when to seek professional help you can keep your bike in excellent condition and enjoy smooth and reliable shifting on all your rides.

So grab your tools roll up your sleeves and get ready to make your bike’s gears work like a well-oiled machine.


Q: Why won’t my bike shift gears smoothly?

Ans: There could be various reasons for rough or inconsistent gear shifting. Common causes include cable tension issues, dirty or poorly lubricated drivetrain components, bent derailleur hangers, or worn-out chainrings and cogs. This guide provides steps to diagnose and address these issues.

Q: How often should I clean and lubricate my bike’s chain and gears?

Ans: It’s a good practice to clean and lubricate your bike’s chain and gears every 100-200 miles or more frequently if you ride in wet or dusty conditions. Regular maintenance helps prolong the life of your components and ensures smooth shifting.

Q: What can I do if my bike’s gears skip or slip under load?

Ans: If your gears skip or slip under load, it may indicate a worn chain or cassette. First, measure the chain for wear using a chain wear indicator tool. If it’s worn, replace it. If the problem persists, consider replacing the cassette as well, as worn cogs can cause skipping.

Q: Are there any quick fixes for minor gear-shifting issues while on a ride?

Ans: Yes, there are a few quick fixes you can try while on a ride. If you’re experiencing difficulty shifting into a specific gear, you can try gently pedaling while shifting to help the chain move into place. Additionally, you can use the barrel adjusters on your derailleurs to make minor cable tension adjustments if needed.

Q: What should I do if my bike’s gears don’t shift at all?

Ans: If your bike’s gears won’t shift at all, start by checking cable tension and the condition of the shift cables and housing. Ensure that the shifters are functioning correctly. If these checks don’t resolve the issue, inspect for other problems like a bent derailleur hanger or damaged components.

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